THEOSOPHY, Vol. 9, No. 10, August, 1921
(Pages 298-308; Size: 35K)
(Number 20 of a 34-part series)



WITH the death of H. P. Blavatsky the Theosophical Society and its Esoteric Section were confronted by a real crisis. Although she had never held any but a purely nominal official position during almost the entire life of the Society, she had none the less been not only the inspiring genius of its foundation but its guiding star.

In the three years that she resided at New York after the establishment of the Society she had attended but few of its meetings and had taken no active part even in those. Almost from the commencement of the Society it had manifested the same tangential tendencies that continually interfered with and disrupted the objects she had in view. This was due, not so much to its ostensibly democratic organization which might be assumed to have rendered its activities subject to the declared will of its Fellows, as to those very forces inherent in human nature which it was her prime purpose to ameliorate. Her objects were to afford (a) a philosophical basis in the teachings of Theosophy, the Wisdom-Religion of the Adepts; (b) from this basis to encourage the comparative study of modern and ancient religions and systems of thought in order to arrive at the fundamental ideas of God, of Nature and of Man which she declared are common to them all; (c) with these restored materials accepted and assimilated by her students, to proceed from the philosophical and ethical foundation thus acquired to that investigation of the inner and invisible structure of man and the universe which is the real science of Life -- a science absolutely sui generis, because resting upon considerations unreckoned with by mankind and to be prosecuted by the evolution of faculties denied, ignored or misused by mankind. The essential requisites for the carrying out of these objects of hers were as free and as large an association of men as might be induced to regard each other's conflicting ideas with the utmost tolerance, and sufficiently open-minded in other respects as to be ready and willing to "accept truth wherever it might be found, and to defend it, even looking popular prejudice straight in the face." Hence the famous "three objects" of the Theosophical Society -- objects that on their face were entirely concordant and current with her own.

In William Q. Judge she found her sole and only original disciple who intuitively grasped both her philosophy, her ethics and her purposes. Hence he at once became and remained her natural and trusted arm for the furtherance of her underlying aim -- the natural instrument of the "Second Section" or truly occult bridge between her world -- the Occult World -- and the really earnest and sincere seeker into the Mysteries. In Colonel H. S. Olcott she found and utilized to the full of his capacities an equally necessary and invaluable instrument for her needs. His worldly savoir faire, his wide acquaintance with all sorts and conditions of men, his established reputation, his versatility, his remarkable ability to handle men, to make friends, to make the best of difficult situations, his limitless energy, his courage, his very appetite for the marvelous and the incredible -- all these made him the one man who could attract and hold together the mob of the credulous and the incredulous delvers into the "phenomena" of the physical and metaphysical universe. He became and remained from first to last, in no invidious sense, an ideal "press agent" for the Society.

But, as well remarked by the author of "The Creed of Buddha," some men have the defects of their qualities, while still others -- the larger portion of mankind -- have the qualities of their defects. H. P. Blavatsky was an adept in true magic, but no more than another could she work any "miracles." She had to deal with men, things and methods as she found them, not as she would like to have them. Her magic was the truly occult ability to turn seeming evils into powers for good -- to utilize both the strength and the weaknesses of natures. The very qualities that made Mr. Judge her occult arm par excellence rendered him, no less than herself, powerless to the accomplishment of an equally essential and unavoidable requirement of her mission. On the other hand Col. Olcott, who filled as no other man in countless centuries had done, the gap between the worldly and the unworldly segments of the Movement, typified in his own character not only the good and admirable qualities of mankind at large, but also those very weaknesses of human nature which cycle after cycle have defeated the larger philanthropy of the Masters of Wisdom in their periodic efforts to promote the welfare of mankind as a whole.

That through the use made by her of the qualities of these two chief colleagues in particular and of many other co-workers in general, H.P.B. was able to draw together and to hold into any semblance of coherence, any degree of continuity of purpose, such diverse and heterogeneous elements as composed the Fellowship of the Theosophical Society, and to accomplish this upon a platform avowedly purely altruistic and educational, with teachings certain from the first to lash to fury every powerful interest in human affairs -- here is a spiritual and metaphysical phenomenon of the first rank, one worthy of the deepest consideration by the student of the forces which govern human life.

All that went on during the seventeen years of her active connection with the Theosophical Movement, the Second Section and the Theosophical Society -- what is it but a standing and as yet unlearned lesson, worthy of his best efforts to study and resolve by every one truly interested in "the investigation of the unexplained laws of nature and the psychical powers latent in man?"

During its life-time the Theosophical Society had a free and open platform. Theosophy, as a teaching, had no preference and no claim on the attention of its Fellows. That it was studied at all was due simply to its novelty, the possible light it might shed, particularly on the "third Object," and its continuous advocacy by H.P.B., Mr. Judge, and those who looked to them for inspiration and guidance. The Society attracted to its fellowship the Ishmaels of every tribe, the intellectual rebels and pariahs of every caste, the pioneers of every degree who were looking afield for some new terrain to explore. To H.P.B. and Mr. Judge it could have but one attraction -- that of a possible channel on which to put afloat their philosophy; a possible vehicle for its practical exemplification, true Fraternity. As we have seen from the First Preliminary Memorandum, the Society had, by 1888, become a farce and a sham from their standpoint; its reformation to the line of the original impulse possible only through the Esoteric Section which they inaugurated despite the opposition and the fears of Olcott and others. The Esoteric Section was a body within a body, and avowedly neither democratic in government nor neutral in attitude, but, by the voluntary pledges of its members, entirely under the direction of H.P.B. Equally by the voluntary pledges of its members, it was devoted to the study and practice of the philosophy, ethics, and science of Theosophy, and the instructions of the probationary school of the Second Section, as delivered by H.P.B. From the very commencement of the Esoteric Section Mr. Judge was in entire charge of its conduct in America.

It will be remembered that the membership, the proceedings, the meetings and the instructions of the Esoteric Section were all under the seal of secrecy, every member making the most solemn pledge in that as in other respects. Neither Col. Olcott nor Mr. Sinnett, the two most prominent in the Society after H.P.B., were members of the Esoteric Section; Dr. Coues had been declined admission; Mabel Collins had been admitted and dismissed for flagrant violation of her pledges, as had Michael Angelo Lane. There were very few members of the E.S. in India and the Orient generally, few on the Continent of Europe, the larger membership being from the beginning in the United States and, next to that, in England. As no one was received who was not also a member in good standing of the T.S.; as the bulk of the financial and other support of the T.S. came from England and the United States, and nearly all the literature of Theosophy and most of the periodicals devoted to it were printed in the English language, the formation and rise of the Esoteric Section gave ample occasion for speculations, doubts and fears on the part of Col. Olcott, Mr. Sinnett and others who were prominent in the Society and well pleased with its conduct and progress on lines satisfactory to themselves. They saw in the Esoteric Section a standing menace, because it was a secret body pledged, not to the Society but to the Theosophical Movement; looking, not to the Organization and its Officers for direction, but to H.P.B. and Mr. Judge; concerned not at all with the "neutrality" of the Society on all matters of philosophy, religion and science, but pledged to study, promulgate and practice Theosophy.

Mrs. Annie Besant had become a convert to Theosophy early in 1889, very shortly after the defection of Mabel Collins and Dr. Coues. She ceased her connection with Charles Bradlaugh and his atheistic and socialistic activities, joined the "household" of H.P.B., was admitted to the Esoteric Section, became President of the Blavatsky Lodge, was made by H.P.B. co-editor of "Lucifer," and within a few months her reputation, her ardor and her intellectual abilities made her the right hand of H.P.B. In the eyes of the world and of most members of the Society, she was the foremost light in the theosophical firmament after H.P.B., and destined after H.P.B.'s death to become the central luminary in the theosophical heavens. She had been the prime supporter of the movement among European and English Theosophists to use Alexandrian methods to cut the Gordian knot of Col. Olcott's incessant intermeddling with his Presidential ukases in the active conduct of the work in the West, which, as will be recalled, resulted in the taking over by H.P.B., at the almost unanimous request of the membership, of the Presidential powers and authority for the whole of Europe -- an action which Col. Olcott accepted with what grace he could. Thus there resulted external harmony and a great acceleration of the growth of the Society both in England and America during the year preceding the passing of H.P.B. The internal jealousies and discontents were for the time being covered up.

Upon the death of H.P.B. the great flood of newspaper and periodical comment and discussion upon her and her life-work naturally attracted fresh attention to the Society, to its leading living exponents, to its history, influence and future. Many of these articles were really sober and serious studies of the significance of the Theosophical Movement; a great number treated Madame Blavatsky as one of the remarkable characters of history and her teachings and influence as epochal. Many others were merely characteristic exploitations, extravagant, sensational, calumnious, vituperative, malicious, jeering, or filled with gossip and inventions, as the interest of the writers or the publications might require. In any event, the passing of H.P.B., no less than her activities while living, showed the amazing influence she exercised upon the mind of the race. For many months after her death more space was given to her and what she represented than perhaps to any individual of the generation. Amongst Theosophists her death necessarily aroused great uncertainties and speculations as to what might befall the Society, its Esoteric Section, and the solidarity of its unwieldy and poorly amalgamated elements. Her presence being removed, her pervading influence no longer being directly exercised, her commanding voice no longer possible to be heard, what was going to be done by her lieutenants and by the rank and file of her followers?

At the time of her death Mr. Judge was in New York, Mrs. Besant in mid-ocean on her homeward voyage from her visit as H.P.B.'s messenger to the Convention of the American Section, Colonel Olcott in Australia, whither he had gone partly on business for the Society, and partly on account of his health, which was greatly impaired. On receipt of the news of H.P.B.'s death Mr. Judge cabled to London that he would come on the first boat and to keep H.P.B.'s things intact till his arrival. Cables were also exchanged between Mr. Judge and Colonel Olcott, and the latter, who was on the point of departing for New Zealand, advised both London and New York that he would go at once to England. As will be remembered, a "British Section," modeled on the same democratic lines as the original "American Section," had been formed near the close of 1889. But after H.P.B. had assumed the Presidency of the European Societies and the European "unattached" Fellows, in the summer of 1890, she had planned to organize them, together with the Branches and Lodges in Great Britain, into a single autonomous Section, nominally and in aim an integral portion of the "Theosophical Society," recognizing and supporting Colonel Olcott as titular "President-Founder" of all the Societies the world over, but actually and practically entirely independent of any jurisdiction outside of or other than the democratic decisions of its own Branches and Fellows, in delegate Conventions assembled.

So soon as Mr. Judge reached London he called together as Vice President a "Consultative Emergency Council," consisting of the European Advisory Council, as named by H.P.B., and the members of the General Council of the British Section. A meeting was held on May 23 and it was resolved to summon a convention of the European and British Sections to meet at the London Headquarters on July 9, 1891. Also, as the representative of H.P.B. in the Esoteric Section, he called a conference of its Advisory Council which was held on May 27, 1891. There were present Mr. Judge, Mrs. Besant, Alice Leighton Cleather, Isabel Cooper-Oakley, Laura M. Cooper, H. A. W. Coryn, Archibald Keightley, William Kingsland, Emily Kislingsbury, G. R. S. Mead, W. R. Old, E. T. Sturdy, Constance Wachtmeister, W. Wynn Westcott, and Claude F. Wright. Aside from Mr. Judge all those named were then residents of England, were actively connected with the Society and its work, were all members of the E.S. formally admitted by H.P.B. under pledge during the preceding two and a half years, and all were "Councillors E.S.T." -- an advisory body appointed by H.P.B. to assist her in the multitudinous affairs of the Esoteric Section, whose name had meantime -- in 1889 -- been changed to that of the "Eastern School of Theosophy." A general discussion took place, participated in by all those present. The essential matters of the meeting (with one exception), and the decisions reached, were embodied in a circular letter dated the day of the meeting, and signed by all those in attendance, Mr. Judge signing "for the entire American Council E.S.T., and individually," and each of the others signing as "Councillor E.S.T." A copy of this circular, which was headed "Strictly private and confidential" was sent to each member of the E.S.T. Although signed by all, the actual wording of the circular was the work of Mrs. Besant, with some changes and corrections suggested by Mr. Judge and concurred in by those present at the meeting. As a portion of the circular there was included an address to the members of the E.S.T., signed by Mrs. Besant and Mr. Judge.

That portion of the circular signed by all who attended the conference recites:

"The American Councillors were represented by Bro. William Q. Judge, with full power, and Bro. Judge attended as the representative of H.P.B. under a general power as given below." This "general power" is the document by H.P.B. dated December 14, 1888, given in full later on in the present chapter.

Additional decisions reached by the full Council at the meeting are set forth in these extracts:

"In virtue of our appointment by H.P.B., we declare:

"That in full accord with the known wishes of H.P.B., the visible Head of the School, we primarily record and declare that the work of the School ought and shall be continued and carried on along the lines laid down by her, and with the matter left in writing or dictated by her before her departure ....

"That her words to Bro. Judge in a recent letter were read stating that this Section (now School) is the 'throbbing heart of the Theosophical Society.'

"That it was resolved and recorded that the highest officials in the School for the present are Annie Besant and William Q. Judge ....

"That having read the address drawn up by Annie Besant and William Q. Judge, we put on record our full accord with it.

"That this Council records its decision that its appointment was solely for the purpose of assisting H.P.B. in a consultative way, and that as she had full power and authority to relieve us from duty at any time, our office and that of each of us ends with the above resolution passed in order as far as possible in our power to place the future conduct of the School on the basis directed and intended by her; therefore we collectively and individually declare that our office as Councillors ceases at this date, and that from henceforth with Annie Besant and William Q. Judge rest the full charge and management of this School."

The address to the members of the E.S.T., signed by Mr. Judge and Mrs. Besant, and incorporated in the circular, was in fact partly written by each, though signed by both. Their joint and several remarks are characteristic in more ways than one. In that portion actually written by Mrs. Besant she says:
".... it is our duty, as the two selected by H.P.B. as her agents and representatives after her departure, to specially speak to each one of you respecting the duty laid on the School by her retirement from the visible control of its affairs. The future of this body depends on the way in which this test of steadfastness and loyalty is endured by the members collectively and individually. ... it will ill become her pupils if they desert the great Cause to which her life was given, and invite the terrible Karma that must fall on those who break the solemn pledge that each of us has made. The School is the heart of the Society: if the heart ceases to throb, the Society must die, as a living power, and slowly decay while passing into a mere sect. ... It is not that the Masters will not help the School if we are supine; it is that they cannot, for they are bound by law, not by law of man's creation but by the immutable Law of nature which always works through agents appropriate to the end in view."
This is followed without a break by that portion of the address which was written by Mr. Judge:
"Consider the position of the School: we are no longer a band of students taught by a visible Teacher; we are a band of students mutually interdependent, forced to rely on each other for our usefulness and our progress, until our very brotherliness in mutual help shall draw a visible Teacher back among us. H.P.B. remains one of our Heads though H. P. Blavatsky is 'dead,' and the Heads of the School have not withdrawn Their guidance in withdrawing the presence chosen to represent Them for a time on which we have rejoiced to lean.

"Especially important is it that at the present juncture we should bear in mind the words of H.P.B., written at the conclusion of the Key to Theosophy. In laying stress on the knowledge and wisdom that will be required by those on whom it falls to carry on the work of the Society after her departure, she explains that those qualities only can save the Theosophical Society from ending in failure. All previous attempts have thus failed (in accomplishing their mission in full) because they have degenerated into sects, and we have her word for it that unless we be freed from bias, 'or at least taught to recognize it instantly and so avoid being led away by it, the result can only be that the Society will drift off to some sandbank of thought or another, and there remain a stranded carcass to molder and decay.'....

"There, then, is our next pressing work, our most mighty responsibility. For if we of this School, Brothers and Sisters, cannot accomplish this task, the Theosophical Society is doomed. Not in vain will come to you these tones of her living voice, speaking across 'the change that men call death,' for we know that she lives and is watching with grave, strong interest how they acquit themselves whose pledge can in no wise be altered by her departure into the invisible. That pledge was not given to the personality, it was given to Masters' Lodge and given also to the Higher Self invoked to witness it. It can therefore never be recalled, however much it may be denied.

"We who write to you claim over you no authority save such as she delegated to us. We are your fellow students, chosen by her -- the Messenger of the Masters of Wisdom -- as Their channels to the measure of our ability, during this period of darkness.....

"We believe in H.P.B. and in the Masters, and it is enough for us that they say, 'Go and carry on our work along the lines on which you have been instructed.....'

"For the use of all of us, there are written teachings left by H.P.B. in our hands that will give food for study and thought for many a year to come, and though the main duty of the Esotericist is service to others, and not personal advancement in knowledge, it is characteristic of her thought for us that behind her she left intellectual and spiritual food for the earnest student, as well as the charge to complete her unfinished work."

The circular as signed by all the Councillors recorded that H.P.B.'s "last words in reference to the School and its work were: 'KEEP THE LINK UNBROKEN! DO NOT LET MY LAST INCARNATION BE A FAILURE'." The reference by Mr. Judge, in the joint address of Mrs. Besant and himself, to the "Key to Theosophy" was to the concluding section entitled "The Future of the Theosophical Society," and to be found at page 304 of the original edition of that work.

We have been thus full in the consideration of the meeting of the Councillors, English and American, of the Esoteric Section, held at 19 Avenue Road, London, on May 27, 1891, immediately following H.P.B.'s death, for the reason that, in our opinion, its importance cannot be overestimated by the Theosophical student who is trying to relate the present to the past, in order to find the causal nodus from which has arisen all the tangled web of subsequent theosophical confusions. The particular matter not covered in the circular will be discussed in its appropriate connection. Meantime, to complete the record of undisputed facts immediately connected with all the foregoing, it is necessary to refer to certain other incidents whose significance was missed at the time and since by theosophical students.

In the opening editorial of the fifth volume of Mr. Judge's magazine, the Path --April, 1890, he writes under the title, "THE PATH'S FIFTH YEAR," and discourses on the occult significance of the number Five, and concludes with a prophecy:

"Let us press forward with new energy in the work of the next four years, for when the second fifth [April, 1895] is reached an important era for theosophists and the world will be at hand, when the result of again being weighed in the balance of events will be more serious than it is now."
This was written at the time of the culmination of the Coues' battle against H.P.B., himself, and their work; written at the time of the battle in Europe over Col. Olcott's "official" intermeddling in the second Paris Branch disturbances; written at the time of Bertram Keightley's visit to America, where, because of his supposed intimate connection with H.P.B.'s esoteric work, his own personal speculative utterances in E.S. meetings were taken by many members to be expressions of H.P.B.'s "inner" teachings and accepted as "authoritative." Great confusion thus was created by Mr. Keightley's pose as H.P.B.'s "representative" to the American members of the E.S.

It was at this same period that H.P.B. addressed to all members of the E.S. the Second Preliminary Memorandum, followed a few months later by her circular notice to the members of the E.S. covering the Keightley incident. Taking the latter first, her circular dated "London, August 9, 1890," reads as follows, with a single omission, the omission itself reciting the particular "heresy" most dangerous:


"Notice from H.P.B."

"Having learned since the return of Mr. Bertram Keightley from the U.S. that several members of the Section have misconstrued what was said to them by him on his own account in regard to the .... and have supposed that because he came from me his remarks were to be taken as instructions from me, I have to say:

"1. I have neither written, issued, nor sent through Bertram Keightley any orders or instructions whatever respecting the above matter.

"2. What has been repeated to me, viz: 'That the ... is to be formed (or to that effect) by ...,' and so forth, has never been stated by me to any one, is incorrect, unphilosophical, and if such has been attempted, is to be stopped at once.

"3. The only 'orders' in Instructions which I issue in the U.S. are through Mr. William Q. Judge, or those which I myself sign my name to with my physical hand.

"4. Any report or statement by any one of orders or instructions alleged to be by me in any other form than as stated in the foregoing paragraph are and shall be false; and any member acting on any other sort of order and without first sending the same to Mr. William Q. Judge, will be expelled from the Section.

"5. I desire above all that the members of this Section shall exercise as much common-sense as they are capable of and that they shall avoid all dealings with astral messages, reports, spooks and the like until they shall have attained the requisite knowledge and ability.

"Mr. William Q. Judge will notify all members in the U.S. of the above. 

The Second Preliminary Memorandum, sent, as stated, in the summer of 1890 to all E.S. members under the same seal of privacy and their pledges, discusses the turmoil in the School, the supposed "mistakes" of H.P.B., which many of her students then as now fancied were the cause of the almost constant uproars and outbreaks in the Society and the Esoteric Section, discloses the plain facts in regard to Coues, Mabel Collins and Michael Angelo Lane, and speaks frankly and most seriously of the real cause of the troubles in the Society and the School -- the disregard by the students themselves of the ethical basis of the work, disloyalty to the Objects of the Society, to the prime purposes of the School, to each other as Brothers, to Col. Olcott as President, to herself as Master's Agent, to Mr. Judge in particular. Of Mr. Judge she says:
"And now again it is not myself who is concerned, but I speak of other 'helpers.' In the worst case, I can always take care of myself personally, and really need no one's defense, though I shall always feel thankful to those who have offered it. But I mean by 'helpers' such as William Q. Judge; and I now call upon all those who will remain true to their pledges to do their duty by both, when the time comes, and especially by their American brother.....

"Ingratitude is a crime in Occultism, and I shall illustrate the point by citing the case of William Q. Judge. He is one of the three founders of the Theosophical Society, the only three who have remained true as rock to the Cause. While others have all turned deserters or enemies, he has ever remained faithful to his original pledge. ... He is the Resuscitator of Theosophy in the United States, and is working to the best of his means and ability, and at a great sacrifice, for the spread of the movement.....

"Brother Judge refuses to defend himself .... No man who knows himself innocent ever will. But is that a reason why we should let him go undefended? It is our bounden duty to support him, in every way, with our sympathy and influence energetically, not in a half-hearted, timid way. .... Put yourselves in the victim's place, and then act as you think your Brothers should act toward you under similar circumstances. Let us protest, I say, all of us; protest by word and deed. Let every one who can hold the pen expose every lie said about our friend and Brother, in every case we know it to be a lie."

In the Fall of 1889, during the full fury of the Coues-Collins-Lane treason in the Society and the School, and when many members of the Society and the E.S. were either shaken in their confidence or lukewarm in defense of Mr. Judge, H.P.B. wrote the following warning to all such in the School:
"London, October 23, 1889.
".... The Esoteric Section and its life in the U.S.A. depend upon W.Q.J. remaining its agent and what he is now. The day W.Q.J. resigns, H.P.B. will be virtually dead for the Americans. W.Q.J. is the Antaskarana (the 'Link') between the two Manas (es), the American thought and the Indian -- or rather the trans-Himalayan esoteric knowledge. Dixi.
"H.P.B. ..."
The foregoing and other letters and statements by H.P.B., both to the members of the Esoteric Section, to individuals, and to the public Society, were all either already known to the various Councillors at the meeting of May 27, 1891, or the originals were read to them by Mrs. Besant and afterwards passed around among those present at the meeting. In particular they were shown the authoritative formal statement of H.P.B., made at the time of the transmission of the First Preliminary Memorandum to the E.S., and drawn up by her at its inauguration, and at the time of the meeting of the three Founders in London at the conclusion and adjustment of Col. Olcott's bitter and prolonged opposition to the formation of the Section. That statement by H.P.B., as given in the circular sent out on the date of the meeting of the Council, reads as follows:
"As Head of the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society, I hereby declare that William Q. Judge, of New York, U.S., in virtue of his character as a chela of thirteen years' standing, and of the trust and confidence reposed in him, is my only representative for said Section in America, and he is the sole channel through whom will be sent and received all communications between the members of said Section and myself, and to him full faith, confidence and credit in that regard are to be given. ... Done at London this fourteenth day of December, 1888, and in the fourteenth year of the Theosophical Society.


It was on the strength of these various facts that the circular of May 27, 1891, unanimously signed by the Councillors, recited that Mr. Judge attended the meeting as the representative of H.P.B. Mrs. Besant's place in the School was affirmed in the same way on the strength of a letter written by H.P.B. to Mr. Judge, dated March 27, 1891, which was read by each of the Councillors in turn, and on the strength of an Order of H.P.B.'s dated April 1, 1891, which is printed in the circular as follows:

"I hereby appoint, in the name of the MASTER, Annie Besant Chief Secretary of the Inner Group of the Esoteric Section and Recorder of the Teachings. 

"H.P.B. ..."
Thus was the crisis in the School occasioned by the death of H.P.B. met and resolved by the determination that its conduct should henceforth be "on the lines laid down by her, and with the matter left in writing or dictated by her before her departure," and by the decision to leave its future "charge and management" with Mrs. Besant and Mr. Judge.

How the exoteric difficulties were met in the Society at large and what the position taken by leading officials and members of the Society with regard to H.P.B. and to the future of the Society may be fittingly treated in another Chapter.

(To be Continued)

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